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Transcript

...

Oh,

...

Hello, everyone. I hope you all can hear me okay.

...

sn in there with that weight. Loneliness into

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sleep here..

...

I'm jim, and this is the Bu art story in show where we

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talk about art history over trains.

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No.

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tonight I'm taking off my art history cap and putting on sort of my regular

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in one to tackle short history of public health policies.

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So as we're seeing, there's this rise of the delta variant

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and the ever stubborn movement of anti access taking hold of the world,

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And I just figured now of you're a really appropriate time to kind of dive into a brief history

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of public health policies.

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I genuinely believe that understanding history really does help us but cycle.

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and I hope that

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in today's session and episode that we have the opportunity to do so.

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Two parts disclaimer to my guys,

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first disclaimer. I absolutely want this to be a discussion. I welcome people of

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all views and opinions speed.

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up on stage with me tonight. I think public health policies are complex

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and messy and having on his discussions is a really important part about it.

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I will definitely be leaving at least fifteen minutes minutes after my segment.

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for q and a and discussion. So feel free to post your questions in the chat function.

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I'll be keeping eye on them as I go along and do feel free you to bring yourself

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on stage once I open it up, second disclaimer of the evening

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this topic totally got away from me. And, honestly, this has sort of become

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episode more on where did public health policy start?

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mostly for a European and American North American Centric

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perspective. But that being inside, I think

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this is

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definitely an episode series. I I could

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break this into parts if we feel that people are interested in finding out more

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So, yeah, Basically, we're gonna be focusing on eighteen hundred to nineteen hundred. That's

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that's the moral of the story tonight guys. Right.

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So on where we go

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And general concepts, I want to prep the show with our that first and foremost.

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medicine has historically been seen as a source of power.

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like, full stop.

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that

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medicine and power are

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hand in hand. You cannot take it away from a lot of societies.

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it's not applicable to all situations, but I would say nine times out of ten,

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we can say power and medicine

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do really equate the same thing.

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Now secondly,

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I also wanna touch on. There's always been this fear of disease it's historically speaking, and I think

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that is also very important to keep in mind now during the session, and now

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dream the pandemic. We are literally a living history guys. I

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it's wild. Like, what a wild time to be alive?

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I know a lot of people don't want to be going through his

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but this is something that I

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I think we need to see pause and really kind of real is that this is

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This is something remarkable at frustrating and

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it's worth

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saying, hey, this is gonna be in history textbooks.

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But lastly, I do want to talk about

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disease and science society are interconnected. I mean, you can't have society you without disease.

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disease without society. They really are kind of kissing cousins.

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for lack of better phrase.

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we see this time and time again in history. This

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fears, that's how these talking just be the way society these reactions

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and how societies inevitably change after major disease outbreaks.

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And I mean, again, putting that perspective of two today's,

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pandemic. We will be seeing, and I mean we are seeing even today

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how we use a society are changing and involving our around?

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this pandemic, and I I think that true of all pandemic throughout history.

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So just keep that in mind. I know that was a lot to, like,

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start off with, but just just bear with me, all good history kinda has to start with the foundation, and then we work

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out from me.

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So who ...okay. Have a set. Let's get into it.

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So basically, public health

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has always been a thing in some form or another. I I would be really for either historian

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did not acknowledge that

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again, societies and diseases go hand in hand.

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So things like quarantine and hospitals are, like medical areas,

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or have always been considered important in intriguing disease with that Bay illnesses.

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Now the question is is how effective these measures were.

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And I just

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that's always up for debate. But to be honest, the more I

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thought about this episode, the more I realized, again, the ...there's so many facet of

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medicine in the history of medicine that I may just end up

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making this into a whole series so bear with me, guys, if I start going on tangent, I will

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bring it back in, but

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again, I digress.

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Now to give you all sort of the simplified version of what I would consider the

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modern quote unquote public health history,

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kind started with the Age enlightenment.

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and let me pop that into the fortune cookie for you guys so you can

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see the age enlightenment is really

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just such a pivotal part of history art history,

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all of it, like, just

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you don't know it, I highly recommend having a read in it, Let mean get this

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I am

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smarter than technology I can do this.

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There we are. Alright. So this is just someone computing.

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this is a great place to start. I really do. I am one of those people who's like,

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if you want a starting place, what's videos great for it, It's not the end all

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sources, but it is a great place.

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to start and spark curiosity.

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No.

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that being inside with

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the huge enlightenment

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the most simplistic I can sum up is

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was a movement that took place in During the seventeenth and eighteenth century. So that's the sixteen hundreds

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and the seventeen hundreds. And during this time, period, we see rise

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in interests on topics such as philosophy,

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understand you natural world, and, of course,

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science. And i've Added live into the fortune cookie, one of my

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fever artwork that I think perfectly sums up the science experiment. Let me get that in there for you guys.

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because it ...it's a really fun way to kind of

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tie or because I I

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that's what I do. Right? Like, I i can't not add art into these things.

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And you can find this to use at the National Gallery London.

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assuming the safe to travel once again to London.

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and it's just such a great work. It is

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then experiment on a bird

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and it's

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five

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this lovely gentlemen man cons

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just the right of Derby and experiment on the bird in the pump

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and this to me is just such a or.

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of the age enlightenment. We see this

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beautiful painting here. I mean, it's massive if if you ever received them person, it asks

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ginormous. And we see here this man in the

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front Center. He's got a bird in the glass dome.

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And he's

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basically doing the experiment to show people in the gallery here

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you will people around him at what oxygen it

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and, like, how the particles in the mystery around us

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affect how we breathe and how we live and

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these poor two girls here in the

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bright hand corner like, near him below him.

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we've got one of them covering her eyes as she's dismay thinking that this

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This horrible man has killed this

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poor bird. And we see like, a father figure. He

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guys arm around trace Goes no. No. No. Look the birds okay. The birds okay.

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And I think that is such a succ way to explain what the age of enlightenment is.

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is a lot people were really scared, they didn't know quite what was happening in with these new scientific

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evolve have meant for them.

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and it it was very terrifying. It was a really scary time.

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but a really exciting time to be alive. And so just

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keep that in mind as we go through these things. And as we discuss,

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all of this that the enlightenment is touch

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it's just it's so fascinating. I could cannot stress that enough.

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And so what I also wanna know in this

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painting is the full moon in the corner because it brings into to a little side note that I want.

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everyone to keep in mind is that pretty much throughout all of medicine

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religion and mystic have always played a huge role on it.

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And I would argue that this

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does even to the stay.

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and age like, we still see it's religion and mister.

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inside of our

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And real ...excuse me art. Wow. I'm am off on a tangent tonight.

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poured my drink a little too strong in medicine and his

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You I know that's I know.

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But that means said I will ...I will ...I'm digress

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I'm gonna come back to the main topic here, which is that we have the rights of science as we know it today.

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and we see a lot of contributing factors to the rise of public health policies.

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which is now happy during time period, and which is

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the main focus of cleanliness.

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Now, to be Frank, people artists

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costing. I mean, now and then more so now,

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like ben now because I mean, we actually know about germs and bacteria and stuff like that.

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like, we can remember that Dr theory isn't a thing until the mid

...

hundreds

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like that

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wasn't two hundred years ago, but I will note that

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If was one of the first scientist expedition germs

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three and one thousand twenty five if he was person and a part of this on the golden age, which brought us

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mathematics and all these other incredible things. But, of course,

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as per history, everyone ignored him. And was like, yeah. Yeah. Yeah. Jordan whatever not i on the thing.

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And so we don't see people recognizing his work until the mid eighteen hundreds.

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and we see this white prep belief of in Europe and the Us.

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So if you listen in a densely populated area, like

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London or New York City, and you didn't have little the money you were in for

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bad time. It was gross guys, like a

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had not stress enough to you. People were slack

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back into slums, which fun fact was a phrase point by Charles Speaking.

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Like things I work.

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And basically, if you didn't have rules or money, there was not really

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a way for you to keep clean as we would consider queen today.

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and for most part into Victorian area,

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like, arr most people weren't be like we do today.

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They would be once a week at most, like,

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the most part throughout history table believe Dirt was good for you.

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like, it helps keep your pores on your skin closed up.

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So it help keep things from getting into your pores and making you sick, which is

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wild, like, just wild.

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And another right way for you to see how Dirty and horribly were that a

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talking about in insidious during, basically pre

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enlightenment, if you will, if this really creates actually actually the match

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has one of the plates catching plates is really cool.

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by William Hog.

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And you can see the painting ...well the I should say the original ones,

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in London where holder viruses from

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But this is this will give you an idea and it's called Jim.

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And it is basically ...that's what this one would like. That is a

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fairly accurate representation of what london's

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area, like,

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really poor. Truly ...I'm

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truly poor neighborhood. What it look like I there we're talking, like,

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people would go to houses, and there would be, like, sixty

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seventy people in one small house, like, maybe one out of

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ten people would be sleeping in about at most. It really truly

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depressing

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to be someone who didn't have money up and told recently.

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And so I think this is just very, very important to keep

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all of this in mind. So we combine

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what we see here, this sort of, like, really horrible way to live

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with the Age enlightenment, and this is where we start seeing this

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first, if you will this ...this revival of legislative public health policies.

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I know. It took us a little while they get here. But here we are. And now we're getting into it.

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And so now first policy I wanna touch on is actually one that doesn't directly

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dress, public health, but is a really, really, really like a cannot

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it's such a first step in allowing public health policy

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to be passed the the Uk. And this won't sees through a reform act of eighteen thirty

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too. I'm gonna pop into to you

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fortune cookie for you guys. I know I'm always, like,

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going straight through the fortune cookies. So bear with me if anyone needs

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many of these links, please dm me on my socials,

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I'm always happy to send these to everyone.

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Okay. There we are.

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And you do

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I can talk and and the fortune cookie I promise.

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I can multitask

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Right.

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Yeah. Yeah. Yeah. I know. Quite the ...click the peanut

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up here with me. I'm kidding.

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Now, Options had

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I put it in there for you guys to have a quick cool. What's important how the reform act

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eighteen thirty two. Is that this means

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people can more people can vote, which means more people can be heard

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and represented in government. So people who normally wouldn't have been heard. So I'm talking about people

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art lord's De, via counts,

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girls things like that real people.

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they could be heard in their government and

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through the

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basically, the monarchy, if you will. And this is really, really crucial to

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asking reforms that will allow her people to petition for a better quality of life.

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It also signals that growing believes that others need to

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step in to ensure the safety and care of those around them.

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again, we're seeing with this enlightenment the idea of

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we as people and the philosophies around it, like, I mean, we're talking about

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hair or things like that. That

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we as people, what is our duty to each other and ourselves,

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So I think that's very, very important to remember, and it's

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also really apparent in another, like,

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like, acts that

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is not necessarily about public health, but is very important to signaling this change.

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which is the eighteen thirty four poor law, which basically meant that work houses could be created

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which a lot people of a certain class or wealth bracket

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that they would be guaranteed food and housing and return labor.

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and we start seeing, like, on a tangent

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and just from this public health, this is where we also

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seen a lot of labor loss coming into to play.

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this is where we start having labor laws that tell people you can't work children under the age of, like,

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ten more than twelve hours a day guys, like, that's bananas

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that they literally had to tell people you cannot make children young children work

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more than twelve hours a day. Like i I think we all should have known that the no node

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begin with.

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five.

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anyway, Well, that's that's for another time.

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And so it's just

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we have to remember that

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these types of things are relief programs, and that

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in part of these really programs we see people looking at the poorer classes.

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and creating new sanitation systems and disease prevention with classes.

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I mean, to put on perspective,

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we don't have the modern flushing toilet that we use today.

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until the eighteen fifties really. Like, I mean, technically

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it goes way way back, but it wasn't like a normal thing. This wasn't

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people had in their homes. Like, they still were using chamber pots. Like,

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it it's wild. Right? Like, supposedly only Thomas Jefferson had a

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like a toilet in his house. Right you in?

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But what it was is basically, it was just a chamber pot sitting at the basin of a very fancy toilet.

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and some poor poor servant had to go and change that out., like, even

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Thomas Jefferson the man. The renaissance of America.

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didn't even have a like, a flushing toilet. That's wild

...

So basically, these is poor loss and things like us that were seeing these social forms.

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are giving everyone our to food, housing and water, and this is a

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great way for public, like,

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public health policy to sneak in because it also

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by giving people cleanliness and sanitation and clean water and food and helping

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we are hoping curb major disease outbreaks. And, of course,

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a lot of, like, as

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per usual, we see major issues that are coming across

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all of the different political spectrum people saying, like, well, who's gonna

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key for this who deserves our help, what benefits will people receive, like,

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guys this this sound familiar why? What I can tool too on the nose from my liking sometimes.

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For that I cannot stress enough

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curb disease outbreaks.

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was essential to people.

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and it

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I mean, people were constantly getting sick. And by constantly ...I mean, the is that we've

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one these break, if not two every year during the eighteen hundreds,

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it is

...

so. If you wanna have an idea Of like, what I'm

...

talking about just Google, like list of epidemics,

...

there's a great article on Wikipedia, which

...

the link is totally escaping me right now. I may find it later and give it to you all

...

it is wild. Like, I mean, we're talking really serious outbreaks like cholera,

...

smallpox. Things like things that are truly doesn't.

...

communities. It it's just terrifying. But

...

I'm digress. I wanna get back on topic here and the first

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act I wanna talk about is the British public Health act of eighteen forty eight.

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this is such a waters moment. Like, this is so deeply important.

...

to public health policies. And with the

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really important about this particular act. Is it sort of the first public health act?

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in the Uk.

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And the main potatoes is basically

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that exact foot in place things such as improved

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drainage and provision of sewers, the removal of all refuse

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from houses streets and rhoads at the provision of

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clean drinking water and the appointment of a medical officer for each town

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And while this act was essential to creating public health policies, it's good to

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don't mind that even in the public really didn't want the government to tell them what to do with their lives.

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and they related did push back against the fact in his beginning, like keyboard

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deeply against this. Like, they didn't want some stranger

...

coming into their community and monitoring their behavior.

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Because basically, these medical officers who be appointed to each town had to report back

...

to the government if they were major disease outbreaks.

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And so,, of course,

...

if they had a major of, like, outbreak reported to the government and that meant, the town will be

...

quarantine, which means that people wouldn't be able to go to work, make money

...

or go about their daily lives. So change is scary. I think that is the most, like,

...

there's aiming you're gonna learn about history

...

change is scary. How does it walk away with joe? If you learned nothing else today,

...

that is it. That's all I want you to walk away with.

...

which again, guys sounds so familiar don't that. Don't mind governments

...

fine on us.

...

That says the man behind this act this particular one,

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is someone I want to quickly note since he is such

...

I mean, he is an essential figure in

...

public health policies, and this is Edwin Chat.

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Chat was actually one of the men who also worked on the poem host again, we're talking about

...

labor laws and

...

hope and safety laws if you own. And I'm

...

pop his name into the fortune cookie. Again, this is his Wikipedia article.

...

So this is a great place to start

...

but may not necessarily be the

...

be all of

...

resources on him. I just wanna

...

make sure I know how because there are good sources out there on this.

...

guns, germs and steals

...

is a really, really good

...

book guys, I cannot

...

say that enough to everyone.

...

we get this into the fourteen cookie.

...

And for there we are. Perfect.

...

So that means said

...

Chatting was manchester, and it came from a scientific

...

background his father was actually tutor to John Dalton.

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who was a very famous scientist as well. And so chat

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basically, most of London, it becomes a basis store where he been his entire career

...

working on creating public health and sanitary policies. So this guy has

...

we can't talk about this without talking about it when Segue, he is so cool.

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and it's

...

wild. It's basically during his lifetime and his time as a parent,

...

the lawyer that we start seeing

...

all of these acts and public health policies coming in and being

...

sort of

...

enacted in par women. So things like the contagious diseases acts

...

and the notification of piece acts.

...

basically, the contagious just you

...

diseases act see that bottom times fast, crackdown down on prostitution,

...

since eat was thought that prostitutes were causing the spread of certain diseases,

...

which leads me to note that many of the continuous diseases acts were away from the government to try and

...

help out prostitution or even shifts the believe of diseases on to

...

prostitutes. And, of course, this is like a minority issue, and it goes into a lot of

...

those

...

the deep societal issues we have when dealing with the blank game and diseases,

...

happy to say this for a discussion at the end, so we're just gonna put up pin in that

...

for the of diseases act, it's

...

literally just as the fountain the acts are basically requiring

...

doctors or medical professionals to report any infectious diseases

...

cases to their local government authority. So, for example, if a doctor saw patient,

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who had contracted Cholera, they had to report that keys.

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to the local public a health official.

...

No.

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on topic of cholera, I want to discuss

...

another important figure

...

in public health policies, which is John's Snow.

...

Now I don't mean

...

game thrones, John snow, I know we can't, like,

...

on think that is being ingrained in our society.

...

I mean, John's snow the position and leader of medical hygiene.

...

and anesthesia.

...

And snow considered one of the founders of modern epidemiology.

...

he just so important and

...

I I have haven't over him. I think he's such a fascinating character.

...

in history, And just there's so much that he's

...

he did drink his life that's really really cool for medical history.

...

But let makes know important to today's discussion.

...

if he basically discovered how color was spread,

...

And he did this through the Broadway pod pump experiment.

...

and he was able to discover that color spread through fecal contamination in water

...

which is very polite way of seeing that

...

poop was getting into water and it was gross. Don't drink it. Don't drink it guys. You'll that's how you gonna cholera.

...

And so basically, because work with the spread of cholera

...

helped debunk theory.

...

which was very outdated, but people still, like,

...

desperately contour to it because we didn't wanna believe in it.

...

But it ...like I said, they healthy you bounce the and also confounded

...

epidemiology at the same time. Like, it it was such a pivotal experiment.

...

And it's really real cool because you can actually still see the pump that he did

...

experiment on in London.

...

it's really, really natural a lot. You just, like, go round the corner

...

basically, if you're in Carnegie Street and, like, So of london,

...

you go to

...

I believe it's

...

not broad street anymore, but it is something broad. There's a

...

pub called John Snow, which everyone themed, like,

...

Dealing with Thrones John Snow, during

...

during peak game of thrones

...

world.

...

But if you look for the John no pub, that's actually just right next door to it, and it's really cool. There's a low plaque

...

occurred and, like, it's such a fun way to visually see history.

...

I just ...I love that That's a fun little fact. I always tell people about going to London. Now

...

also wanna know that snow was the the only one who's been doing this. I'm like,

...

hoping you good epidemiology and understanding the sort of trait

...

tracing experiments if you will. And what leads two diseases for throughout communities.

...

and very much his pupil, if you will, lack of a better way to put it.

...

William far was also incredibly important in providing

...

proving that sanitation of public spaces was essential

...

in disease prevention and urban setting. Like, absolutely, his work was very, very similar in line

...

what John Snow is doing.

...

And so the two of them, basically Dave parliament, like,

...

absolutely full proof evidence that

...

this is

...

by fantasize

...

public spaces, you were helping get rid of diseases.

...

And so,, of course, that this is just so so so essential to what we're seeing for public

...

policies and the history of it and what gets things pushed through parliament,

...

Now, briefly jumping across the English

...

panel. I wanted to touch on a couple of important contributions that the French Media to public health policies.

...

because I just don't want it to be only Uk. I may slightly virus, but that's

...

that's my life. I cannot ignore

...

Resume. You'll have to forgive my french accent. It's

...

been a while since i spoken in French.

...

but Examine, it was a really important person

...

to public health policies. So he was one who spent his life studying what

...

pause, death and disease and certain area if he was literally tracing much like snow,

...

he was going around tracing and running these experiments to see what was happening and what was causing youth outbreaks.

...

And he also one of the founders of technology.

...

and his worst are incredibly important.

...

in understanding that sanitation with

...

essential and preventing diseases, and that providing clean environments or everyone no matter what they're

...

social class was an essential way to avoid major to see that

...

matter where you were in the world

...

Fan sanitation was key to preventing disease, which is

...

again, really important that we're seeing it both in the Uk and in France.

...

now.

...

Now the second.

...

French thing. I want to discuss is vaccinations.

...

basically, thanks to our good friend, we passed

...

many of us know as a guy who that pass process

...

but he was also incredibly important to public health policies,

...

because his work as a chemist is what led to so many medical breakthroughs

...

and disease prevention

...

via.

...

he is also considered the father of tax, which I think is amazing.

...

I'm gonna please look at Pdf page in there for you guys because

...

he is he's so so self fascinating and really, really interesting guy.

...

And I really do recommend you having

...

a read on him his

...

it's just such a great scientist.

...

And if any of you like science or fancy things, this is the great way to do it.

...

Perfect. And there we are. Right.

...

but moving along,

...

And so

...

It's

...

basically, this transitions really nicely. Now that i've talked about vaccines and things like that.

...

the other important part of public health policies

...

which I really wanna talk about tonight is the compulsory vaccination acts.

...

No. Basically, these acts are exactly like they found. They were asked passed

...

that required everyone to get vaccinated to need it.

...

Now there were a series of packs, basically from the eighteen forties and until

...

today even, but I would say the most major ones being from the Eighteen forties and

...

told nineteen hundred. But the ......I wanna about the first two because he really leave

...

the groundwork work for what we see today even for vaccination policies.

...

The first act in eighteen forty provided vaccinations free

...

cars to the public. Now i wasn't an act that was passed that mother

...

who you are matter what your social class matter, what you're doing if you are in the Uk,

...

you get a vaccine free.

...

the it.

...

full stop, which is incredible. Like that's incredible policy.

...

The second one that Came that I wanna discuss

...

is the eighteen fifty three

...

act, which required all children who were able

...

to be vaccinated. That

...

children vaccinated. They also had innovation records that would be provided not only to the

...

turns and the children, but also stored in government database.

...

So the government would have access to understand who's vaccinated it who happened.

...

And then also, if a parent refuses to have your child be vaccinated,

...

that they must be a fine of one

...

pound

...

No.

...

one pound doesn't sound like a a lot to us today. That's like quick, like, a dollar fifty

...

snacks you're in the Us.

...

But back then, that was quite a chunk of change. Like, that was like a day's worth of work.

...

basically. The one inverse backups not just really like, for people work

...

that would been quite

...

I have to be find, like, that would have really deter them from not getting their children back

...

Of course, there are all kinds of instances where parents stay.

...

pewdiepie rather than have their child vaccinated.

...

but it really was a huge incentive to get parents

...

and the general public to get vaccinated. And I mean,

...

it's incredible right? Like, as soon as they put these axe in place,

...

we see a Uk across the Uk that there's a twenty

...

sent drop and disease based illnesses, like, which is wild and so

...

fighting right? Like, let we see these vaccines.

...

really truly helping people and the

...

that this policy is a really great way to keep people healthy.

...

Now.

...

that is is is that these acts also led to what we would able

...

today at sort of an anti facts movement.

...

there were a lot of people who are outraged that the government could command them

...

to sub them, if you will, to their

...

their bodies to a medical procedure, if you will

...

even if it was for the greater good, some people claim to religious the

...

assumptions. Others that it was an infringement on their civil rights,

...

I'm some cleans that this piled the dignity of their body, sounds familiar.

...

Victoria hi. Welcome to the stage. I will get you in just in one moment. I

...

have one quick little note I wanna make, and then we're gonna open up for q and a in discussion.

...

I also would be remiss if I didn't mention very briefly at or General.

...

was the creator of the small tax.

...

small park vaccine scene. Unfortunately, I don't

...

like I said I I wanna keep this wrapped up, and I wanna save time for us to just disguise.

...

but they do really really recommend

...

having to happen in Google on Network Gender,

...

he is so important and so essential to all of this.

...

I know that means said I have literally just scraped

...

the surface of the history of public health policy. And I'm I really do think

...

I'm gonna need to do, like, a multi life heart series on this because there's just

...

so much to go into

...

and it's been incredibly difficult to fit everything into

...

this the little like summary if you will, And I also wanna see a little bit So we can discuss it as salty. I

...

I really want there to be a discussion with this. And that being said of

...

I would love to open the floor to anybody in Victoria. I would love to hear your

...

thoughts your questions, your discussion, Everyone is welcome by

...

all the opinions are welcome up here. I am happy to talk to anybody

...

no matter what your beliefs are.

...

that means said tutorial Welcome come high.

...

I love your show. How are you? I love

...

and look

...

is

...

Hi,. Thank you.

...

Thank you. And I didn't want to

...

interrupt your momentum.

...

I and so, you know,

...

I was happy to

...

be patient as long as you wanted.

...

No. Thank you. I appreciate that you're always welcome up on stage.

...

I wanted to add to

...

the inside about vaccinations.

...

This

...

Yes. Please.

...

we've passed the line.

...

Yeah.

...

There was this amazing man. His name is is have you have ever heard of one

...

Oi i m s.

...

sixteen hundred to the seventeen hundreds and

...

Yes.

...

So he was ...he was brought here as a slave.

...

he was the african descent.

...

he happened to be working

...

living with and a new England period minister named cotton Martha,

...

m mh h r because pronouncing the name.

...

And there was an outbreak of smallpox

...

and this is also around the time, which I always find really fascinating

...

of the American revolution.

...

and I find that fascinating because there is a

...

something very similar to the unrest that we're dealing with today.

...

and having this outbreak

...

of Hold it.

...

What was amazing is that

...

no one really knew about essential until this man

...

shit with the hot maker,

...

that in his tribe,

...

what they did was they would give the the disease

...

in small portions to the people

...

in his tribe,

...

to help them, you know, either be vaccinated. Or modulate.

...

so that they would stop the spread of a of the disease

...

smallpox. And that was the beginning of ovulation

...

and having best vaccines come to the west.

...

which I was found fascinating

...

I love that yes.

...

Yes. Thank you, Very worry for sharing not because it is. I think that's

...

That's exactly what i was hoping for mind discussion. Thank you. That would literally nail on the head.

...

No. Because it is. I think that's an incredibly important part of of least In America like,

...

talking about how these things come to do because they aren't always

...

straightforward, and I love that. And I mean, gotten matters there's like, what this what the character

...

Yeah

...

like I off. I

...

And it's like wasn't man who would been given such

...

interesting information from

...

someone who came to America has a slave and just

...

then be like, oh, yeah. Of course. Like, this was now my thing and it's like, no. No. No. No.

...

mean, history. Right? Like, a of his

...

trade by. No. I think that

...

that's Brilliant. And I I do. I

...

That's the funny thing is this meet you would notice this well you.

...

But I actually ...it's hard to find in the Us.

...

push back in the early

...

basically pre nineteen hundreds of vaccination records or like, people being back

...

and like, the vaccination acts. And so if anyone has any information or

...

sources on it. I would love to head

...

feel free to again raise your hand, come up on stage, always happy to have people up here.

...

if not, A

...

Please bring up your questions, bring up your thoughts, like we are here for it. So

...

So like, if not. I'm just gonna keep

...

going on and on the on about how this is really wild the history is so cyclical.

...

and that were, like, literally as whole many things in history, like,

...

around diseases and epidemics are just

...

the ...it's rehash guys we're just really hash the same thing over and over and over.

...

And how do we break that cycle? And I don't know.

...

Excuse me?

...

But that being inside. I ...like, absolutely Very, very curious.

...

because

...

I mean, we have people, like,

...

and as a species, I should say, we were ...I am so impressed that we have

...

mute to survive. Oh my god

...

We had so many major plagues and diseases and pandemic

...

Like, how are we still here? We are a resilient bunch

...

which is a little glimmer of hope for us through

...

I know things have been pretty down lately with the delta variant news.

...

it's pretty grim. But that means that I just

...

I think

...

before we're lining up at all, if that we have survive pandemics. We will

...

to survive pandemics.

...

And that we were a resilient bunch of

...

creatures on this planet. But we also think it's incredibly interesting though it again

...

going through these cycles like, I mean we're talking in sixteenth century Venice.

...

we see great examples.

...

The authors name is holy escaping me by the pleasure of

...

virtually meeting him during the pandemic, and he right

...

basically on murder mystery, if you will in sixteenth century mass, which is

...

incredibly fascinating.

...

my mind is always blown back his work. But basically, they have this

...

same problem in sixteenth century venice during major outbreak there. I believe

...

it was up the Group coupon.

...

clinic. Don't don't hold me to that. It was a major plague.

...

And so a lot of the issues were, like neighborhoods will be quarantined and

...

you couldn't leave your neighborhood.

...

but

...

a lot of people had the brake quarantine because they were of lower classes and if they didn't work,

...

that meant they didn't get money. And if they didn't have money, they couldn't buy

...

food, and they couldn't feed their families and their children and themselves.

...

And so I think it's really incredibly interesting that we see this

...

time and time again. I mean, here we are century later, having the exact issue

...

during our current pandemic of

...

people having to break horn, you know, or break rules or go and put themselves

...

on the firm lines, if you will,

...

when it comes to public racing roles because they literally need the money.

...

I just ...it it really does bulk on my mind as a historian.

...

It isn't a very historian and both of those it just really does.

...

very, very confusing to me. And, again, the

...

constant shipping of blame and the way we as

...

people are constantly so scared of diseases that when you have here.

...

to fear one fear longer, and then two,

...

shift the blame again, on these people we see people minorities guys, and minorities are

...

always getting

...

the short end of the stack when it comes to and diseases,

...

and it's just so depressing. And so I would love nothing more

...

then for everyone here to keep that in mind, as we watch

...

the world kind of unfolds with this pandemic. And remember that we can change this. We are

...

capable of breaking the cycle of history any anytime we want.

...

we just need

...

to do it.

...

we just need to do it.

...

Would that be inside? Thank you. Absolutely. Everyone who has been here tonight it has been an i'm

...

pleasure listening to you. Thank you, Victoria for coming up to tonight.

...

it has

...

been a delight talking to you all, and I have a feeling that will probably be more

...

if not public policy i

...

more medical history stop coming up. So keep that in mind that being inside

...

thank you, everyone. You can find me at the bu art

...

Dorian on Instagram, my website is now live at

...

bu art historian dot com, which is very, very

...

fighting I just launched the.

...

thought I am

...

very, very happy about that. Thank you so much.

...

and you guys are always welcome

...

there is no stupid question to my book. So always happy to hear from you all.

...

thank you, everyone. Have a lovely evening.

Fortune Cookie